(i would do what i did on amino, but I'm to lazy, sorry)
Here you can make a pack, join a pack, or be a loner. Everyone has a chance at being an Alpha! You can fight for dominance or be submissive if you want.
Do you have what it takes to be a leader?
Will you start your own pack with your mate?
Will you cause mischief?
Beware of humans...
This wolf role play is set in a un claimed forest, or so it seems.
When you join introduce yourself and then make a character. Once your character is approved you can start role playing.
The Pack: The pack is a family unit. The alpha pair are usually the parents of the pack. There pack is made up of their pups and other family members. When a new pack starts not all members will be related but will soon be filled up with family as the alpha pair have pups over the years. but most of this pack is rogues or wolves from other packs. some had been kidnapped, others stumbled upon it and fell in love. most rogues and loners start as prisoners then make their way up as normal pack members.
Alphas: Alphas are the pack leaders. They are not always the biggest, and meanest wolves of the bunch. They love and care for all the pack members. The Alphas job to keep order in the pack, they dominate meals and determined who eats when. Once your Wolf is an alpha they can stay alpha until they die. However I encourage people to try and take over Alpha positions, especially when the Alphas old.
Omegas: Omegas are the lowest ranking members of the pack. They always eat last. They aren't always the smallest members of the pack. It's possible for the Omega to be bigger than an alpha the difference is their confidence. Omega's tend to be submissive, unconfident, somewhat shy, and a little afraid. They are also sometimes the more playful members of the pack. They can relieve tension in the pack by initiating play.
Peace keepers/makers: They also help relieve tension in the pack just in a different way. They will sometimes distract, initiate play, and/or watch over to make sure no one gets hurt. They will sometimes protect the Omega than the Omega is being picked on too much.
Age: Wolves live and average of 20 years. Don't make any wolves older then 25 years. This is what your Wolf is considered In this age timeframe.
Pup= born – 11 weeks
Young adult= 4 months (12 weeks) – 1 year
Sexually mature= 22 months
Adult: 2 years
Adult Prime: 3 – six years ~Is when a wolf is that there peaks condition in life. Best years to start a new pack, or take over an alpha position.
Older Adult: 7 – 10 years
Very old: 11 – 15 years
Mating: Alphas are usually the only ones who mate. However that's not always the case. Check out the request page for mating outside of an alpha pair to see with the exceptions are. The alpha male chooses this mate, he can choose any female that he wants. Whoever he chooses she'll become alpha female and rise in rank. It's possible for the alpha male to choose the Omega female for his mate. When that happens she instantly rises in rank and becomes alpha female.
Mothering: What's the pups leave the den the whole pack helps raised about. The mother isn't the only one involved and she doesn't even have to be actively involved.
Pups: Pups start showing their personality right away and can show characteristics of what rank they could possibly be someday. Pups are all born with blue eyes and the color doesn't change until about the 16th week.
Litter size: Max litter size for this role play will be six survivors. It's possible for pack to have more than one litter if more than one female gets pregnant. But you have to make a request for that first.
Pack size: Largest pack sites recorded is 35. The larger the pack the hard it is to feed everyone. When the pack reaches around 30 members than the Alphas can kick out yearlings to strike out on their own. Members can leave to start a new pack. When a pack is too large only the highest-ranking wolves get to feed.
Starting a new pack: For this role-play new packs just starting have to have at least four members at least one has been alpha. The alpha leader can be male or female, you don't have to start with a mated pair. Usually there is in a mated pair than the pack is made up of one gender until the wall from the opposite gender joins. To start a new pack either have a loner Wolf character or a wolf character leave its pack. They will go to neutral territory in search of other wolves. When the pack is officially made the members will howl to make other wolves aware of their presence.
Mourning: When a pack member dies no matter what rank the whole pack will mourn. Individuals will have different mourning periods, some longer than others depending on how close that will was to the other. During mourning periods wolves often seem depressed, they laze about, stop hunting for a while, and howl a lot mourning the loss and seeming to want to call the other back.
Fighting for dominance: Dominance is mostly determined over a meal/during mealtime. The alphas eat first, and pups are sometimes allowed to eat sooner than others. Middle ranking members are constantly fighting for dominance over meals. Ranks are constantly shifting. The Omegas eats last, everyone will try to keep them from the meal until everyone had their fill first. However the Omega will sometimes try to sneak a bite they are not always successful. There are dominant struggles outside of meals too. This can be done in a variety of ways.
Teacher and pup sitter? is it just pretty ovbious info? what do they do?- bagel bean
well, the teacher holds a group of pups to help them learn the knowledge they need. they also help/teach the pups to hunt, fight, block and more. they help care for the pups and teach them. If the pack goes out hunting then one or two wolves will stay behind and watch over them. All member's of the pack will help feed them. this also kinda explains the pup sitter.
Official Ranking System
~ In order of highest rank to lowest rank
- Alphas: Male and female pair
- Betas: A male and a female
- gammas: a male and a female
- deltas: four of either male or female
- High Ranking Members: Just in general
- war managers: a male and female. they are the top two leaders for war planning, they go in for defense and offence.
-hunting leaders: three wolves. they plan the hunting groups. their are up to three groups at a time.
- Hunters: Basically everyone hunts, but if you don't want any other jobs and you just want to be apart of the middle ranks then this is it for you.
- theta: only one. they are the lead healer and teach up to two at a time.
- lota: up to two. they are the thetas subjects. they are substitutes for the theta.
- Pup Sitters & Teachers: The name really says it all. Middle rank.
- Peace Keeper: The peace keeper is either apart of the middle ranks, high ranks, or can also be a beta. There is only one though a male or a female.
- resource gatherer: up to four.
- Low ranking: Just in general
- chi: male or a female
- psi: the original ranking. this spot is unlimited and this is where your rank grows.
- Omegas: A male or a female
- Pups: Don't have an official rank, but can show characteristics of what rank they could possibly be someday. They still have to fight for it though. Once pups become young adults they can have an official rank.
When you make your character profile fill in the rank spot with one of these and I will let you know if you can have that rank. For pups, it's the rank they want to be when they grow up.
I think you omitted to mention that Betas could either challenge the alpha for leadership of the pack if circumstances are appropriate, such as if the alpha hadn't led the pack succesfully, or seeing as alphas tend to have the first attack on potential prey, essentially leading by example, failure in the hunt makes an alpha vulnerable to a challenge from a beta. I think Betas generally are not allowed to mate, and if they do they are ousted by the pack to form their own pack with their mates. Also, and I may be wrong about this, but any loser of a leadership challenge is ejected from the pack.- Leah
Any wolf can challenge an alpha and generally will if weakness is show. Like aging or if they're hurt. Beta's are loyal to the alphas and help them lead and protect the pack. They aren't necessarily looking to or waiting to take over the pack.
An alpha does lead the hunt but doesn't always have the first attack. He will even (if older) allow the younger wolves to do most, sometimes all, the work and then come in at the end to dominate the meal. A failed hunt doesn't make the alpha look bad, it just happens sometimes. The wolf pack video explains all this and it explains hunting tactics.
Wolves aren't ejected from the pack if they lose a challenge. They are put back in there place by the alpha and sometimes other pack members. I would think that the alpha would then keep an eye on them and constantly remind them of they're rank.
Wolves can be kicked out of the pack if the pack is too big to feed everyone. It's both the alphas job to make sure that the other wolves don't breed. If another female get's pregnant then it's the alpha female who decides what to do. She can kick the pregnant female out. She can let her have the pup and let her raise them, or the alpha can choose to raise them herself and not allow the real mother near them.
I saw a video once that had a great example of this but I can't find it. There was a pack living in an enclosure. The male wolves were fixed so they picked a female and injected her with sperm. Well the female they chose wasn't the alpha female. When she started showing signs of pregnancy the alpha treated her badly. She might have kicked her out of the pack if it wasn't for the enclosure. Anyway when she finally had the pups the people took them away and hand raised them and then reintroduced them to the pack. The alpha female adopted them and she wouldn't let the mother any where near them. She would punish her if she interacted with them and would growl and snap at the pups when they interacted with her. (oml, it was really good)
I know a lot of people want to have loner wolves. I will allow it after the pack is along with its role play. Wolves can leave there packs to become a loner. However I want to note that loner wolves are generally looking for a mate and to start a new pack. It's very rare for a wolf to leave it's pack and be a loner for the rest of it's life. Wolves can't really live on there own, life would be very hard for them. They wouldn't do very well when hunting and if they don't join another pack or make there own they could starve and die.
Please make a request to be a loner and then let me know if you want your wolf to either start a new pack at some point or join a pack. That way I can let others know so they can have another wolf also leave there pack or make a new wolf to join the new pack.
If another wolf was to refer to a wolf from another pack it should be. "That's a Shadow Pack female." or "That's Infinity alpha male." Also, "I think I was a Shadow Female wondering near our borders."
When a new pack is formed by loners they can choose there pack name. I will then make the thread and they can ask for certain types of areas they want added.
Many of us think of communication only as talking or writing to each other. Those are two ways humans share information every day. How do wolves "converse?" Even though they cannot talk or write, wolves communicate effectively in several ways.
Wolves use body language to convey the rules of the pack. A wolf pack is very organized. Rule number one says that the pack is made up of leaders and followers. The pack leaders are the male parent and the female parent - usually the father and mother of the other pack members. They are likely to be the oldest, largest, strongest and most intelligent wolves in the pack. They are known as the alpha wolves and are usually the only members of the pack to produce pups.
Any wolf can become an alpha. However, to do so, it must find an unoccupied territory and a member of the opposite sex with which to mate. Or, more rarely, it moves into a pack with a missing alpha and takes its place, or perhaps kills another alpha and usurps its mate.
The alpha male and female are dominant, or in charge of the pack. To communicate dominance, the alphas carry their tails high and stand tall. Less dominant wolves exhibit submissive behavior by holding their tails down and often lower their bodies while pawing at the higher ranking wolves.
There are two levels of submissive behavior: active and passive. Active submission is a contact activity in which signs of inferiority are evident such as crouching, muzzle licking and tail tucking. The behaviors typical of active submission are first used by pups to elicit regurgitation in adults. These behaviors are retained into adulthood by subordinate wolves, where they function as a gesture of intimacy and the acceptance of the differentiation of the roles of the wolves that are involved.
Passive submission is shown when a subordinate wolf lays on its side or back, thus exposing the vulnerable ventral side of its chest and abdomen to the more dominant wolf. The subordinate wolf may also abduct its rear leg to allow for anogenital inspection by the dominant wolf. If two wolves have a disagreement, they may show their teeth and growl at each other. Both wolves try to look as fierce as they can. Usually the less dominant wolf, the subordinate one, gives up before a fight begins. To show that it accepts the other wolf's authority, it rolls over on its back. Reactions to this behavior may range from tolerance (the dominant wolf standing over the submissive wolf) to mortal attack, particularly in the case of a trespassing alien wolf. Following the dominance rules usually keeps the wolves in a pack from fighting among themselves and hurting each other.
Wolves convey much with their bodies. If they are angry, they may stick their ears straight up and bare their teeth. A wolf who is suspicious pulls its ears back and squints. Fear is often shown by flattening the ears against the head. A wolf who wants to play dances and bows playfully.
Wolves have a very good sense of smell about 100 times greater than humans. They use this sense for communication in a variety of ways. Wolves mark their territories with urine and scats, a behavior called scent-marking. When wolves from outside of the pack smell these scents, they know that an area is already occupied. It is likely that pack members can recognize the identity of a packmate by its urine, which is useful when entering a new territory or when packmembers become separated. Dominant animals may scent mark through urination every two minutes. When they do so they raise a leg, this dominant posture utilizes multiple forms of communication and is called a "Raised Leg Urination" or RLU.
Wolves will also use urine to scent mark food caches that have been exhausted. By marking an empty cache, the animal will not waste time digging for food that isn't there.
Wolves use their sense of smell to communicate through chemical messages. These chemical messages between members of the same species are known as "pherimones." Sources of pherimones in wolves include glands on the toes, tail, eyes, anus, genitalia and skin. For example, a male is able to identify a female in estrus by compounds (pherimones) present in her urine and copulation will only be attempted during this time.
Of course, their sense of smell also tells them when food or enemies are near.
Have you ever heard a wolf howl? They're not howling at the moon they are communicating. They call any time of the day, but they are most easily heard in the evening when the wind dies down and wolves are most active. Wolves' vocalizations can be separated into four categories: barking, whimpering, growling, and howling. Sounds created by the wolf may actually be a combination of sounds such as a bark-howl or growl-bark.
Barking is used as a warning. A mother may bark to her pups because she senses danger, or a bark or bark-howl may be used to show aggression in defense of the pack or territory.
Whimpering may be used by a mother to indicate her willingness to nurse her young. It is also used to indicate "I give up" if they are in a submissive position and another wolf is dominating them.
Growling is used as a warning. A wolf may growl at intruding wolves or predators, or to indicate dominance.
Howling is the one form of communication used by wolves that is intended for long distance. A defensive howl is used to keep the pack together and strangers away, to stand their ground and protect young pups who cannot yet travel from danger, and protect kill sites. A social howl is used to locate one another, rally together and possibly just for fun.
Can you think of ways that humans communicate without using words?
How Do Wolves Say Hello?
Have you seen dogs jump up to greet their owners, bark at strangers or roll over when another dog approaches? Then you already know something about how wolves communicate. Dogs inherited most of their language from their ancestors, the wolves.
Wolves use three different languages:
Sound - Howls, Barks, Whimpers and Growls.
Special Scents - Scats, Urine and Pherimones.
Body Language - Body Positions and Movements and Facial Expressions.
Neonatal Period - from birth to the age of eye opening 12 - 14 days
Birth - Born approximately one pound, blind, deaf, darkly furred, small ears, rounded heads, "pugged" nose, little if any sense of smell; they are unable to control own body temperature, motor capacities limited to a slow crawl, mainly with front legs and to sucking and licking; possess a good sense of balance, of taste, and of touch, can whine and yelp; nursing pups feed four or five times a day for periods of three to five minutes and on average females will gain 2.6 lbs. and males 3.3 lbs. per week for the next fourteen weeks. This time is known as the "period of maximal growth."
Transition Period - from eye opening until about 20 - 24 days
2 weeks - Eyes open and are blue at 11-15 days, but vision is poor and they are not able to perceive forms until weeks later; milk incisors present (15 days) and can start eating small pieces of meat regurgitated by adults; begin to stand, walk, growl, and chew; first high-pitched attempts at howling.
Socialization Period - from 20 - 24 days until about 77 days
3 weeks - Begin appearing outside the den and romping and playing near the entrance; hearing begins (~27 days, ears begin to raise; ~31 days, ears erect but with tips still flopping); canines and premolar teeth present.
4 weeks - Weigh 5-6 lbs.; growth of adult hair around nose and eyes; bodies begin to take on conformation of adults with disproportionately large feet and head; high-pitched howls are gaining strength; mother may go off for hours on end to hunt; dominance and play fighting begin.
5 weeks - Gradual process of weaning begins. Can follow adults up to one mile from den.
8 weeks -Disproportionately large feet and head.
8-10 weeks - Adults abandon den and move pups to rendezvous site; weaning complete, pups can feed on food provided by adults; adult hair becomes apparent on body.
8-16 weeks - Eyes gradually change from blue to yellow-gold.
Juvenile Period - from 12 weeks to sexual maturity
12 weeks - Begin to accompany adults on hunting trips for a short while and return to rendezvous site by themselves.
3.5 months - The "period of rapid growth (14-27 weeks)" begins: the pups will gain approximately 1.3 lbs. per week for the next three months.
4-6 months - Milk teeth replaced; winter pelage becomes apparent.
6 months - Pups begin to accompany adults on hunts; pup appearance nearly indistinguishable from adults.
7 months - The "period of slow growth (27-51 weeks)" begins: the female pups will gain approximately .07 lbs. per week and the male pups will gain approximately .4 lbs. per week; pups begin to travel with pack.
7-8 months - Actively begin hunting.
1 year - Epiphyseal cartilage closes off, marking the end of skeletal growth.
22 months - Sexual maturity.
Mech, Dr. L. David and Boitani, Luigi eds. (2003) Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Mech, Dr. L. David. (1970) The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, p. 136, 140-143.
The wolf is a carnivore, an animal suited for catching, killing and eating other creatures. Wolves prey primarily on large, hoofed mammals called ungulates. In Minnesota, the white-tailed deer is the wolf's primary prey, with moose, beaver, snowshoe hare and other small mammals also being taken. Elsewhere, wolves prey on caribou, musk-oxen, bison, Dall sheep, elk, and mountain goats.
All of these ungulates have adaptations for defense against wolves, including a great sense of smell, good hearing, agility, speed, and sharp hooves. As these prey are so well adapted to protecting themselves, wolves feed upon vulnerable individuals, such as weak, sick, old, or young animals, or healthy animals hindered by deep snow. By killing the inferior animals, wolves help increase the health of their prey population a tiny bit at a time. When inferior animals are removed, the prey population is kept at a lower level and there is more food for the healthy animals to eat. Such "culling" also ensures that the animals which reproduce most often are healthy and well suited for their environment. Over many generations, this selection helps the prey become better adapted for survival.
Wolves require at least 3.7 pounds of meat per day for minimum maintenance. Reproducing and growing wolves may need 2-3 times this much. It has been estimated that wolves consume around 10 pounds of meat per day, on average. However, wolves don't actually eat everyday. Instead, they live a feast or famine lifestyle; they may go several days without a meal and then gorge on over 20 pounds of meat when a kill is made.
In Minnesota, each wolf in eats an average of 15-20 adult-sized deer or their equivalent per year to meet their nutritional requirements,. Based on this average, and the estimate of 3,020 wolves in Minnesota, wolves kill the equivalent of about 45,300 to 60,400 adult-sized deer per year. In comparison, Minnesota hunters take around 52,500 deer per year in wolf range (over 250,000 for the entire state) and several thousand are killed during collisions with vehicles.
Wolf predation on ungulates varies seasonally. It is highest during mid to late winter, when animals are suffering from poor nutrition and the snow is deep, making them easier to kill. It is also quite high in early summer when prey animals have their young, as wolves prey heavily on vulnerable young.
The question of whether wolf predation is additive (the number of animals killed are in addition to those which would die otherwise) or compensatory (animals wolves kill would die anyway) is a complicated one, as wolf predation effects vary with the prey species, time of year, area, and system. It is quite probable that wolf predation is both additive and compensatory, and the real question is how much of it is additive.
For example, wolf predation on deer is moderated by the severity of the winters. In a severe winter, wolves may kill healthy deer which would have survived the winter had they not had been made vulnerable by the deep snow. This would be an example of wolf predation as an additive factor. Conversely, in a mild winter, when the snow levels are low, healthy deer easily escape wolves. Therefore, the deer captured are primarily sick or weak. This would be an example of compensatory mortality, as most of these deer probably would not have survived the winter. This is why it is rare to find a starving deer in Minnesota wolf range.
Reciprocally, prey populations may limit wolf numbers. When considering the examples above, the potential for prey numbers or conditions to regulate wolf numbers is observable. In a mild winter, deer will be healthier and wolves may not be able to catch enough animals to feed themselves. This may cause a decrease in the wolf population. It is also possible that several severe winters in a row would decrease deer populations and wolves may not be able to kill enough food to eat, so again wolf numbers would decrease.
Another factor complicating our ability to determine the precise effect of wolf predation, is that it is difficult to tease out the effects wolves have on their prey populations in areas where there are many different predators. For example, in Yellowstone National Park, in addition to wolves, there are grizzly bears, coyotes, mountain lions, bobcats, lynx, wolverines, and black bears which all prey on Yellowstone ungulates.
In summary, we cannot generalize about what kind of effect wolves have on their prey populations, because their effect is dependent on so many factors. It is possible to get an indication of wolf and prey population trends in a small area or system, but generalizing from one to the other is not always valid.
Mech, L.D. 1970. The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species.
New York: Natural History Press, Doubleday Publishing Company.
ok. ill post more stuff in the comments. (IM SO SORRY)
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